The Rule of 150
As the number of members in a group approaches 150, certain dynamics begin to manifest themselves. Under 150 members, groups tend to be able to cooperate based on mutual trust, simple rules and easily understood management of resources. As the group approaches or exceeds 150 members, factions appear, and a leadership hierarchy emerges.
Military organizations, one of the oldest forms of working cohesive groups, know that people work best in groups limited to 150 or less, that is, platoons and squadrons. A platoon contains 30 to 40 people, comprised of smaller working units. A squadron or company consists of 60 to 250 members comprised of two to six platoons. Companies or squadrons are considered minor units, in contrast to the major units of battalions and regiments, which may contain two to 24 squadrons or 300 to 3,000 soldiers.
A 400-year-old religious group, the Hutterites, realized that the maximum size for a communal farm, or colony, was 150 people. As a colony approached 150 members, the Hutterites divided the colony into two separate groups in order to avoid the splintering of the group into clans. Today the Hutterites have around 350 colonies with over 35,000 members.
As a group goes over 150, social scientists have noted that it is easier for freeloaders, cheaters and liars to establish themselves in the community, introducing a divisive element to the group.
What does the Rule of 150 mean for our families and our children?
As we work in groups, we need to be aware of the dynamics that naturally develop. A friend described how her workplace disintegrated as the group grew larger. ''I remember,'' she said, ''exactly the day, time and place that my job went from 'us' to 'them.' From that day forward I watched the group splinter and our espirit de corps be lost forever.''
In our schools, we need to encourage the creation of working groups of less than 150 whenever possible. Communities tell of success in creating ''schools within a school'' programs or ''pods,'' where less than 150 students and teachers interact in a long-term learning community. Families and school staff report a sense of high satisfaction when working in these smaller school organizations using multi-year tracts.
In our churches, we need to be aware of how growth affects the community. Pastors report political and leadership challenges as congregations approach 150 members. Fellowship groups of six to eight families or couples create vital social cohesion and group satisfaction in larger churches.
In our sports organizations, we need to use the Rule of 150 to keep our leagues small enough to avoid damaging trust, loyalty and the objectives of sportsmanship.
As a group reaches its effective limits, people start to fall through the cracks of the social network. Complicated hierarchies of leadership emerge. Communication and feedback diminish among members.
As we all know, there are still problems with groups that are under 150 members. In smaller organizations, though, perhaps our children and our families can develop effective relationships and communications, helping to ensure the happiness and success of each member.
Next week: Bullying
Kids Talk™ is a column dealing with early childhood development issues written by Maren Stark Schmidt. Mrs. Schmidt founded a Montessori school and holds a Masters of Education from Loyola College in Maryland.
She has over 25 years experience working with young children and holds teaching credentials from the Association Montessori Internationale. She is also Creative Director for a video-based reading series for children ages three to six, The Shining Light Reading Series. Contact her via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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